Understanding the various types of motherboards is essential to understand computers and design your laptop

Motherboards are the heart of every computer. Motherboards are essential because they house critical components like the CPU (central processing unit) and memory.

It acts as a connector between essential components of the computer.

Importance of Motherboard

The motherboard is the central circuit hub connecting all components and peripherals of a computer.

It regulates power from the power supply and controls the energy received by the hard disk, graphics card, CPU, and system memory.

It is the core piece of computer hardware and can be considered the "backbone of the entire computer system."

A few components are built into the motherboard, including the system bus, BIOS, CMOS, and chipset.

There are also several sockets and ports, including the Integrated Drive Electronics(IDE), Accelerated Graphics Ports (AGP), Universal Serial Bus (USB), Peripheral component Interconnect (PCI), and the RAM slots.

The motherboard controls the external data flow via USB and IDE-ports and directs it to the hard drive.

There are various refurbished motherboards available in the market, and different motherboards can support different types and models of disk drives, memory, video cards, CPUs, and other peripherals.

When replacing faulty parts or assembling computers, it is essential to ensure that the components are compatible with the slots and connectors on the motherboard.

Motherboard Components

  • Chip with CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • RAM (Random Access Memory) Slots
  • Southbridge/northbridge
  • BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
  • I/O port
  • USB (Universal Serial Bus)
  • Slot for CPU
  • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) slot
  • Slot AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)
  • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)

Chip with CPU (Central Processing Unit)

The electronic circuitry that executes the instructions in a computer's CPU is called the "central processor" or the central processor or main processor.

The CPU executes the basic logic, arithmetic and controlling operations.

RAM (Random Access Memory) Slots

RAM is a type of computer memory that can read and write. It is used primarily to store data and machine code.

The RAM device allows data to be read and written almost simultaneously regardless of keeping it in the memory.

RAM media can read and write data much faster than direct-access storage devices such as hard drives, CD/DVD, and magnetic tapes.


These are the two core logic chipsets on the motherboard. Typically, the southbridge implements the motherboard's slower capabilities in a northbridge/southbridge chipset computer architecture.

The front-side bus (FSB) connects the northbridge to the CPU. Also known as the host bridge or Memory Controller Hub.

It's responsible for tasks that require the most performance. They work together with the southbridge to manage the CPU and other motherboard components.

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

BIOS is also known as system BIOS (or PC BIOS) or ROM BIOS. The BIOS firmware is installed on its system board when a computer is powered on.

I/O Port

Input/output ports connect the CPU to peripheral devices. You can also use dedicated I/O processors (channels on mainframe computers), which execute their instructions.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)

The industry-standard USB specifies the specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connecting computers. There are many USB connectors available, including the most recent USB-C.

Slot for CPU

A CPU slot (also known as a Processor socket or CPU socket) is a collection of mechanical components that connect the microprocessor (CPU) and the PCB.

You can therefore install a CPU directly on a motherboard with no soldering.

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Slot

Peripheral component Interconnect is a local bus that connects hardware to a computer, and it can perform all motherboard functions of a processor bus.

The PCI slot is often referred to as Conventional PCI to distinguish it from its successor PCI Express (PCIe-e or PCI-e).

PCI Express is a new high-speed serial computer expansion standard that replaces the PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.

It's a motherboard interface that can be used for all types of hardware connections, including Ethernet, SSDs, hard drives, and SSDs.

AGP Slot (Accelerated Graphics Port)

AGP was created as a high-speed channel connecting a graphics card (or video card) to a computer.

It was primarily used to accelerate 3D computer graphics.

AGP was initially intended to be a descendant from the PCI series connections for video cards, and the PCIe slots eventually replaced it.

ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)

Various motherboard types are built with and without sound cards to support multiple applications.

It was largely compatible with the 8-bit bus of the IBM PC 8088-based IBM PC.

One attempt was made to convert ISA into a 32-bit bus, and this was called Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA).

It was not a successful attempt, and the EISA bus was replaced mainly later by the VESA Local Bus or the PCI bus.

Different Types of Motherboards

The components and functions of Motherboards can be found in all devices, including smartphones, tablets, laptops and tablets.

Due to limited space, the dimensions of the components and how they are placed on the board can vary.

There are multiple types of motherboards designed to suit different machines.

Most components can be replaced individually on desktops. In laptops/smartphones, however, some parts are soldered to the board.

Every manufacturer has developed its form factor to match the design of computers. Motherboards made to fit IBM compatible computers can also be used in other sizes.

Motherboards made using ATX motherboard form factors were used by most computers produced in 2005, including Apple and IBM.

Here are Six Types of Motherboards

  • AT Motherboard
  • ATX Motherboard
  • LPX Motherboard
  • BTX Motherboard
  • Pico BTX Motherboard
  • Mini ITX Motherboard

AT Motherboard

These motherboards are more significant than the standard mini desktop computer, with a physical dimension of hundreds of millimetres.

Installing new drivers is also more difficult due to their larger physical sizes. These motherboards use power connectors such as six-pin plugs and sockets.

It is difficult to identify these power connectors and users have difficulty connecting them and using them.

This motherboard was very popular in the 1980s. It also had a long life expectancy.

ATX Motherboard

ATX stands for Advanced technology extended. Intel created it in the 1990s. It is smaller than AT and allows for the interchangeability of connected components.

The connector features have seen a significant improvement.

LPX Motherboard

The board has two significant improvements over previous versions. First, the Input and Output ports were moved to the backside.

The second was introducing the Riser card, which allows for more slots and more accessible connections. These features were implemented in the AT motherboard.

This board's main drawback is the absence of Accelerated Graphic Port slots (AGP), directly connected with PCI. NLX boards solved these motherboard issues.

BTX Motherboard

BTX stands for Balanced Technology Extended. It is designed to meet the power and heat requirements of new technologies.

Intel ceased further development of BTX boards in the mid-2000s to focus on low-power CPUs.

Pico BTX Motherboard

Pico is a smaller size board. The quality set of heat sinks allows the motherboard to handle high-level pressure and heat.

BTX has two expansion slots so that they can be used for both. It supports digital applications with unique features, including half-height and riser cards.

Mini ITX Motherboard

This is a miniature version motherboard that replaces the older versions. It was designed in the early 2000s, and it measures 17 x 17cm.

It is mainly used in small-form-factor (SFF) computers due to its faster cooling and lower power consumption.

This motherboard is the most popular in-home theatre due to its low fan noise, which will increase the quality of your theatre system.

Form Factors for Motherboards

Form factor refers to the shape and layout of a motherboard's motherboard. It is used to define the motherboard design and shape.

This determines the power supply type, case style and where the individual components will fit.

ATX is the most common motherboard type in industrial and domestic desktop computers, and it reduces the motherboard's size significantly.

The Top 3 Best Motherboards for Gaming

The gaming PCs are dominated by spec-boasting hardware such as graphics cards and SSDs.

These parts must be connected to the central part of the computer, the motherboard

Although motherboards are less exciting and more technical, they are essential to a high-performance gaming computer.

We'll help you understand the technical jargon and share the top gaming motherboards on the market today.

  • Asus TUF Gaming Z590-Plus WIFI
  • Gigabyte Z590 Aorus Tachyon
  • Gigabyte Z690 Aorus Pro


The form factor is essential as computers come in many different shapes and sizes due to digital applications

Computers are required to be integrated into machines, vehicles, and all other equipment on the planet. In the coming days, the nature and size of the motherboard will change.

You now have a good understanding of different types of motherboard that are available. The memory module defines the quality of the motherboard.

Next, you will need to find an operating system that suits your needs.

However, once you have found one that suits your needs, you can begin your journey to build your computer.